Sex, Science and Salvation. Notes Towards a Revisionist History of Abductions – Part 3:

Peter Rogerson
Magonia 49, June 1994

In the autumn of 1966 the abduction narratives emerged from the cosy world of the ufologists with the almost simultaneous publication of the Hill story in the Saturday Evening Post and in book form as Interrupted Journey, and the publication of the Villas-Boas (ABV) story in Coral Lorenzen’s Startling Evidence. This was an update of her 1962 title, The Great Flying Saucer Hoax, aiming to cash in on the massive increase of interest in UFOs in mid-sixties America.

Our imagination suggests that there was a great rush of imitative Hill cases and that the image of the medical abduction was established right away. In fact this is not what happened; the abduction stories which succeeded these first two publicity generators showed a notable lack of consistency. The imitators came, but not of the Hills. Betty’s hysterectomy and Barney’s fear of his forthcoming ulcer operation could not compete with Villas-Boas’s amorous adventures. The first wave of successors in the swinging sixties were imitators of Antonio. Or they were what the salacious imagination took to be one better: the rape, or at least pretty forcible seduction, of women and their possible impregnation by male ufonauts. Needless to say, these stories have long been buried, only to be unearthed when Bullard compiled his catalogue.

The series commenced very rapidly on the heels of the public release of the ABV story when the New York Chronicle (21 November 1966) reported a shock story from back in August in which an Australian girl, Marlene Travers, claimed that while out for an evening stroll in the country near Melbourne she had seen a silvery, glowing disc land. It was 50ft by 10ft, and a tall handsome man with luminous eyes dressed in a loose fitting metallic tunic emerged from an opening in the side. Though his speech was just a high-pitched whine, she understood by telepathy that he wished her to be the mother of his extraterrestrial child. He led her into a room, which seemed to go out of focus, and proceeded to have sex with her. When they had finished he led her out, but she tripped and burnt her ankle. Her friends found her with burnt legs, and there was an indentation on the ground where the incident allegedly happened. She had been missing for seven hours, and was later found to be pregnant. [1]

Not to be outdone, the National Tattler (2 April 1967) reported how one Jean Sheldon, out driving in Michigan, stopped “for a breath of air”, when she saw a 50ft. disc surmounted by a glowing red dome. It descended, and an opening appeared in the underside, through which she was levitated on board. Here she encountered three naked male humanoids with green eyes. They too told her they wanted to mate and she had “very exciting” sex with them for over an hour. Although this was supposed to indicate they were biologically compatible, unlike Marlene, Jean did not become pregnant. [2]

Codelia Donovan of California met a man dressed in a long white robe, who kidnapped her in a black Cadillac and gassed her. She awoke on board a flying saucer where he was raped. [3] Another Californian, Claudette Cranshaw, was said to have been walking along the beach near Blanca when a luminous globe landed and six semi-humanoids pursued and raped her, as a result of which she gave birth to a stillborn blue baby. [4]

It wasn’t just women however, who had erotic adventures with ufonauts. Eugene Browne, of Antrim, Northern Ireland, had a surprising adventure to relate. In the autumn of 1967 he wrote to Flying Saucer Review claiming that the previous 17th July he was walking in a wood near his house when he saw a dull blue-grey dish-like object with a rough and pitted outer surface, hovering just above the ground. From an opening in the centre two human shaped beings, dressed in silvery suits, floated to the ground and walked into the woods. Shortly afterwards they returned and floated back up again. [5]

The following summer Browne wrote to Contact UK’s Awareness magazine to report his abduction. On the night of 6 October 1967 he was walking home from a jazz club in Belfast, when he saw a craft in the sky. A yellow light came from it, which danced round him making him feel dizzy and loose consciousness. He awoke on a table in a windowless, oblong room, lit by a blue light from the floor. He was strapped down by metal bands attached to an apparatus at the side. Four men and a woman surrounded him; they had a bluish aura. The tallest, dressed in a dark one-piece suit, said “at last, someone who will do”, and released him. The woman had long blonde hair, high cheekbones and was very fair with freckled complexion. He had sex with her and she told him they were “from another galaxy” and were experimenting to get human seed. Afterwards he was tied up and told it would not be long before he was returned. He blacked out, recovering in a field about a mile from the original location. He saw an object which took off with a whistle as its tripod gear retracted. [6]

One doesn’t have to be excessively cynical to see in these stories nothing but cheap exploitation, and indeed at the time those who investigated Eugene Browne suspected a hoax. It seems unlikely that Travers, Sheldon, Donovan and Cranshaw ever existed outside the minds of male tabloid feature writers. But note also that the Sheldon, Donovan and Browne stories also feature the ‘doorway amnesia’ not found in Hill or ABV, which Bullard now tries to persuade us is evidence of authenticity.

There is no doubt about the authenticity of the second US abduction story – it doesn’t have any! Jason and Robert Steiner’s story was outlined in the 1967 paperback The Terror Above Us, by ‘Malcolm Kent’ and is in effect a piece of fiction by one George Wouk. [7] This was a very wooden story which nevertheless combined elements of the Hill and AVB accounts. It starts with the two brothers seeing a psychiatrist because of their traumatic fear of driving together and of the whirring of old-fashioned computer tapes; and Robert’s withdrawal from his previously active sex life.


Let’s get this straight: a work of fiction has introduced the ‘enchantment’ or ‘Oz Factor’, the supernatural cold,
the doorway amnesia, the alien in disguise,
and the whole drama of disinterested scientists
operating on us like guinea-pigs


Under therapy they recall driving into a strange fog, seeing a UFO in the sky, and hearing a beeping sound. As they emerged from the fog they saw the road ahead blocked. The beeping sound stopped but was replaced by “[a] silence … strange for the country … there was no sound of crickets though their noise usually filled the neighbouring woods”. They are surrounded by short, “cold” beings with metallic devices on their belts. They have doorway amnesia. Jason awakes strapped down on a cold slab, unable to open his eyes. He is given an examination concentrating on his genitals.

Separately they are placed in a cell with a young woman whom they suspect is an alien in disguise, and are offered food. Jason has sex with the girl. Wouk/Kent concludes his account with words which prefigure Hopkins: “they act with scientific impunity. They kidnap, hypnotize, traumatize, drug and experiment on us as if we were guinea-pigs”.

Now let’s get this straight: a work of fiction has introduced the ‘enchantment’ or ‘Oz Factor’, the supernatural cold, the doorway amnesia, the alien in disguise, and the whole drama of disinterested scientists operating on us like guinea-pigs. The Terror Above Us may have been more influential than we realise; after all, although ufologists with rare and expensive bibliographies may know that the story was fiction, it doesn’t follow that the average member of the reading public did.

These themes were summarised in Otto Binder’s ancient-astronautish Flying Saucers are Watching Us, published in 1968 [8] the year before ancient astronaut themes were popularised by Daniken. Binder quotes the ideas of a certain Max Flindt, and argued that humans were the result of aliens interbreeding with apes and that ‘they’ were watching over their grand experiment. Soon they will return to inaugurate the new millennial age in which “crime, poverty, urban decay, air pollution, famines” will disappear, age and infirmity will be no more, and the One World would be admitted to the United Federation of Planets, which in Star Trek style is indistinguishable from the USA. Thus as early as 1968 was the cocktail of wild sex and apocalypse mixed.

Such tales were by no means the only themes in the early days of the abductee. Other United States stories show that modern and earlier imagery coincided. Of the latter we may point out the story from Hilliards, Ohio, in which a young man, alerted by a strange noise and his dog barking, saw some human figures emerge from an egg-shaped object via a sort of elevator. The figures places small spheres around the craft, then a man walked across the field and appeared to talk to them. When the witness stood on a twig he alerted the figures, who chased him and inflicted a burn on his neck. They tried to take him into the craft, but gave up, dropped him, and took off. [9]

Even more typical of modern accounts was the autumn, 1966 abduction report of Philip Williams and Herman and Otto Collins, three young itinerant crop workers who claim to have been the subject of an attempted abduction by a green-eyed, rotten-stinking Bigfoot at a place near Marshall, Michigan, where a farmer said a luminous object had landed. [10] Or there was Beau Shertzer who reported that on 5 March 1967 he was with a nurse driving a ‘bloodmobile’ (blood transfusion service vehicle) along Rt. 2 by the Ohio River on a cold, dark night. On a deserted stretch of road they saw a white glow rise from the woods and move over the van. When Shertzer looked out of the window he was horrified to see a sort of grappling arm being lowered from the object, as if it was trying to grab them. The object paced the vehicle, snatching at them with the giant claw. It took off when other cars approached. [11]

There was the attempted abduction of the daughter of Mrs La Marquands, at Thompson, Manitoba. The mother was in her house when she heard a beeping sound; looking outside she saw dust and leaves sweeping around the house. Going outside she saw her husband and five children staring at the sky while a neighbouring was holding her eight-year-old daughter, who was rising into the sky. Overhead was a sort of rectangular object with a black underside, rotating slowly and showing alternate dark and silver edges. It then moved off. The daughter was dazed and could not remember what happened from when she first encountered the wind. [12] It is possible that this was an exaggerated account of a whirlwind – perhaps even one of the notorious Meaden vortexes.

Of the other United States reports from this period we can chart an ascending level of abduction-like features. All these stories would today be swiftly normalised into the abductionist canon.

Two Native American motorists, Billy Regay and Guy Tosie, were driving along Highway 26 at Riley, Idaho when they saw a light ahead and their car stalled. The lights came from a small domed object on the highway just ahead, with flashing green and orange lights revolving around the rim. They saw two occupants in the dome. An opening appeared and a third figure drifted to the ground, approached and then entered their car. It was about 1 metre tall, with a scarred, rough face, no nose, slitlike mouth, rounded eyes and large, high ears. The car then seemed to travel of its own accord into a field of stubble. Tosie escaped and went for help; when he returned with others they found Regay in a state of shock. The creature had spoken to him in an unintelligible high-pitched warbling. It was joined by another creature and both returned to the craft, which took off with flames from the bottom. [13]

The story told by Rita Malley shows a further move towards modern features. She reported how on the evening of 12 December 1967 she was driving home from a friend’s house in North Lancing, NY with her five-year-old son Dana. It was a dark, wild evening, snow had started falling and the wind was interfering with her driving, making her late home for her husband’s supper. At first she thought that the strange glow lighting up her car as she drove along a deserted stretch of road was the police after her for speeding, but when she turned round she could see nothing. Further up the road she finally saw the origin of the light: a round object 50 – 60 feet in diameter with a dome on top and red and green lights underneath, too bright to look at. She looked back to speak to her son, but he sat transfixed, ” … sitting straight up. His eyes … just bugging right out of his head … he wasn’t looking out at the object … his head wasn’t turning.”

Suddenly she realised the car was going sideways off the road and the lights in the car dimmed and went out. She thought of escaping but realised they had nowhere to go. The object emitted a humming sound like a TV antenna in the wind or a swarm of bees coming at her. Suddenly she heard a chorus of voices speaking in what sounded like broken English, almost, but not quite, as if they were coming through a loudspeaker: “Paul Donalds, Moravia, killed in or near Masena in a tractor trailer owned by Joe Etinger, Moravia.” Paul Donalds was the brother of an acquaintance of Rita’s from beauty-school. The voices also said Rita would not remember the time the car had stopped.

After a few minutes the car seemed to drive itself back on the road; the steering wheel which she was holding moving by itself. When she arrived back home she had a terrible headache and was almost hysterical. That night she awoke screaming when the sound of the TV antenna in her house vibrating in the wind reminded her of the buzzing of the object. She was still suffering headaches and nightmares when Lloyd Mallan interviewed her in February 1969. [14] Paul Donald was indeed killed in the circumstances described by the voices.

Today who could doubt that presented with such a story, with its imagery of time-lapse, enchantment and telepathy, Rita would have been rushed round to the nearest hypnotist. Indeed that is what did happen to another woman interviewed by William Donovan who investigated Rita’s case. She was Emma Funk who on the night of 17 July 1967 was driving down Rt 22 north of her hometown of Millertown, NY at about 2325 hrs. A black shiny object about the size of a baseball flew into her headlights. It came right up to her car, seemed to brush against the windscreen then veer off to the left. When it made contact the car lit up “like a giant electric light bulb. The engine and headlights failed and she lost consciousness. When she recovered the car was pointing in the opposite direction, there was a cracked area the size of a man’s fist in the windscreen.

In September she underwent hypnotic regression in which she spoke of the radio being filled with static, and ‘them’, who turned her car round and struck her across the chest with a rod. [15] The regression was filmed as part of a 1968 BBC TV documentary fronted by Stephen Black. That documentary made some very pertinent points and Black’s treatment of the subject was years ahead of its time, but with the exception of John Harney, British ufologists dismissed it at another sceptical attack. Black however had come to the conclusion that it would take mainstream ufology another twenty years even to approach, for example, that a surprising number of UFO witnesses were deep-trance hypnotic subjects – what today we would call fantasy-prone. One of the significances of Mrs Funk’s regression was that it was probably the first after the Hills’ at a time when ufological imagery was still consolidating.

Other stories of that period include John Keel’s account of “a prominent community leader in a small town in the Ohio valley” who claimed that when in the army in Germany in 1951-2 he had a twelve hour time lapse one night after being approached by a bright light while guarding a downed plane. Later he was plagued with dreams of triangles and squares. [16] Tony Moracco of Clifton Springs NY suffered a three hour time lapse while walking along Eastern Boulevard, after seeing a huge dic with orange and green lights. He was found in a dazed state by a patrolman. [17]

That the abduction imagery was also developing in the popular imagination is shown by the schoolyard rumours circulating around the Island Lake, Manitoba area as early as summer 1966 – spring 1967. Dogs would bark for no reason and children would disappear for several hours at a time, returning to tell of little men one metre tall, with large heads and long arms, wearing silvery suits, who had given the children a strange candy that would last for days. They had long ‘entertaining’ talks with the children. Another source heard of flying saucers landing and leaving marks on the ground. Again there was talk of small beings, dressed this time in close fitting hoods, carrying rods which gave off beams of light and which they used to push and poke children. There were also rumours of these creatures trying to snatch children in their sleep.

The imagery is close to the ‘North Central’ case of 1964 which I described in Magonia 47. [See Fairylands Hunters, part two] It now looks as if this was triggered by Venus [Letters, Magonia 49]. Were these the peaks of a series of children’s rumours sweeping across North America, or were they triggered by TV images? Again, we see a modern space-age version of children being ‘taken’ by the ‘other’. [18] The idea of supernatural candy reappeared in British Columbia in 1970, and we can also see images of the alien and child-molester merging. There are overtone of the Oude Pekela paedophile child abduction allegations from Holland as well.

As 1967 turned into 1968 the USA was to see the return of true abduction stories. The first post-Hill ‘repeater’ abductee, as well as the one with the photographs, was a Texas farmer named Carrol Wayne Watts from the – one might think ironically named – town of Loco. Watts’ story was presented in two parts. The first, published in papers such as the Seattle Post Intelligence of 2 April 1967 reported that this “well-known and respected” 29-year-old farmer was working in a field when he saw a silvery-grey object moving at 60m. altitude. Then on the night of 31 March he saw a light, on a neighbouring property belonging to his uncle. He went to investigate, whereupon he he encountered a dull-grey cylindrical object about 30 metres long and 3 metres high. He said that fearing it was a crashed experimental plane he approached to see if he could offer assistance.. Then something like an elevator door opened and he saw a deserted room illuminated by a blue glow, in which he could see meters and dials and something that looked like a map on the wall.



There was a loud crackling “like a Victrola record”, and an unemotional voice invited him to take a physical examination by standing against a machine. The voice said that any man who passed the physical would be allowed on board, but no women or children could take the flight. ‘They’ (the occupants, or those who had passed the physical, is not clear) were stationed all over the world and no-one could stop them. Unimpressed by this offer, Watts ran off home and called the police.

About a year after going public with this first story, Watts announced a sequel. He now said that on the night of 11 April 1967, after a violent thunderstorm, he had again seen a light on his uncle’s property. This time he encountered a small oval object hovering above the ground. Four men standing in an open doorway beckoned him on board. They were just over 1.5 metres tall, with wrap-round eyes, ‘superficial’ ears and noses and immobile, smiling mouths. They wore white coveralls. He went inside and was ushered to a flexible chair which moulded itself to the contours of his body. The light dimmed and he felt pushed back into the chair as if by sudden acceleration, but there was no further sensation of movement. Then there was a jolt, a door opened and he was shown into a large room.

There he was stripped and his body was scanned by delicate wires, while the beings stood in another room huddled around an illuminated circle. Seeing a sort of green cube Watts hid it in the pocket of his jeans, which where hanging nearby. When he dressed one of the figures reached into the pocket to retrieve it. Watts grabbed the creature’s arm, there was a brief struggle and he lost consciousness, recovering in his truck. He had been gone for only half an hour. [19]

Watts claimed subsequent encounters in which he took several photographs of the craft and one of a small being. Needless to say, these are quite unconvincing, although J. Allen Hynek seems to have been taken in for a while. Asked to take a lie-detector test he ‘failed’ and then claimed the story was a hoax contrived by a local artists and ‘planted’ into his mind in hypnotic sessions. In a further twist he later recanted the recantation, claiming he had deliberately failed the test following threats to him and his family. [20]

However, the photographs really prove the hoax, and the Watts story has been excommunicated from the ufological canon. Nevertheless we see many features which will crop up in later stories, an the construction of a new group of beings a step further towards the Greys: smaller than the Hills’ abductors and kitted out in Socorro-style white coveralls instead of the Hill’s sailor-suits. There are elements of Hill – medical examination – and features from Villas-Boas – the unsuccessful attempts to take a souvenir, the light seen while tending fields. As well, there are new additions to the pattern: first repeater abductee, and doorway amnesia on the way out of the craft. We also see how the secular initial story later slips into contactee mode. The abduction pattern has not yet settled down.

The second of the North American onboard cases is even more totally excluded from the ufological record than that of Watts. This is the tale of ‘John Grant’ as told by Warren Smith, who also wrote under the name of Eric Newman. He related it in the 1968 magazine format pictorial special The Allende Letters [21]. In this account, John Gilbert is “the pseudonym of a sales executive employed by a well-know corporation which manufactures electronic components, computers and data processing machines”, who claimed to have been abducted in March 1967 and subjected to “several startling medical, biological and sexual experiments”. His car was stopped at an undisclosed location and he was surrounded by a group of strange men about 3.5 metres tall with broad foreheads, elongated eyes and hawk-like noses. Their eyes disturbed him and as a result he did not look at them too closely, but he got the impression they had no pupils.

There was a ‘leader’ dressed in blue and they spoke amongst themselves in guttural tones. He became confused and faint and was dragged towards a ramp and into a craft, where he was revived and shown into a sort of control-room, then given an explanation of the craft by the ‘leader’, apparently by telepathy.

Disappointingly, Smith does not give details of the “medical, biological and sexual experiments” despite claiming to have 107 hours of taped interviews, investigating the case with psychiatrists and preparing a book. In fact nothing more was heard of ‘John Gilbert’ and all memory of this case has virtually disappeared. Why? One answer seems to be that the American ufological community simply didn’t trust Smith – one prominent US ufologist warned me years ago that Smith was know as a hack who was not above making up the stories to help sell his books. Even the fragmentary Gilbert story contains too many cribs from the Hills (blue uniform, influence by touch) and though, like with Watts, we have wrap-round eyes, the nose is taken from Betty Hill’s descriptions. Elements from the story crop up in a later Smith account, that of Raymond Shearer.

 

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ARE YOU THE WATCHMAN OVER THIS PLACE?
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It is well to remember our cavils about Smith, because he is a central character in the next abduction story, which has remained in the mainstream ufological canon, although admittedly at the margins. This is the account of policeman Herb Schirmer in Ashland, Nebraska. In the early morning of 3 December 1967 he was disturbed by noises of farm livestock when he encountered red, blinking lights, which he saw as windows on a saucer-shaped craft hovering a meter or so above the ground. He then thought he experienced a time-lapse and later reported a tingling sensation, headaches and nausea. In February 1968 he was hypnotically regressed by Leo Sprinkle, when he ‘recalled’ a white, blurred object approaching his car, and felt he was in communication with it – a communication which was resumed during the actual regression. This seems to have been standard contactee fare about friendly aliens from other galaxies, swept here by antigravity and electromagnetic forces. [23] Schirmer was not satisfied by Sprinkle’s investigations, and by June had contacted Warren Smith, who arranged regression by Loring Williams.

Schirmer’s story now expanded, claiming that two beings with strange eyes [left] approached him. One of them fired a ray at him which paralysed him. He was grabbed behind the ear (a favourite place for alien attention: cf. Mr Spock’s Vulcan death grip, and a variety of implants) then is asked the strange question, “are you the watchman over this place?”. He is led up a ladder into the object. More clichÈs follow: the object is made of 100% magnesium (from the Ubatuba case popularised by the Lorenzens the previous year [24]); it sucks power from electricity lines (as in Fuller’s Incident at Exeter [25]); it has a mother-ship as per Adamski; and inevitably they have underwater bases in – where else? – the Bermuda Triangle!

The creatures that took Schirmer were described as 1.25 – 1.50 m. tall, with overdeveloped chests, pasty faces, slanted eyes like cats, slit mouths and with a nose flatter, longer and more prominent than a human’s, on a long thin face. They wore silvery uniforms on the front of which was a silver logo. They were reported as planning an invasion, “but in a friendly manner”, but Schirmer suspected they were not telling the whole truth; and in a hint of things to come, humans had been picked up and used in a breeding programme.

Now the only question here is whether Schirmer picked up these ideas from the UFO literature before of after his December experience, and perhaps whether Smith primed him with any of it. Further, no-one appears to have independently spoken to Schirmer since, though there are rumours he joined the contactee circuit.

The final North American case of this period concerns a fourteen-year-old schoolboy, David, from Calgary, Alberta, who on about 14 November 1967 ran home in the early evening, saying he had been chased by a ‘flying saucer’. Shortly afterwards he had a nightmare about the incident, and then underwent hypnotic regression conducted by a local dentist, later joined by a university psychologist

David recalled that walking home he saw an aerial object surrounded by a row of lights. It projected an orange beam of light onto him and drew him up into a sort of cot. Here he was studied by a group of beings 2 m. tall with rough brown, crocodile-like skin all over their naked bodies. They had holes for ears and nose, slanted eyes, slit mouth and were hairless. They probed him with four-fingered hands, then took him through a hallway into another room with bright lights, and put him on a table. There they lifted his head and examined his hair, eyes and nose. On one occasion he said they had voices like kazoos, but on another that they did not talk. An orange light came down and he was pricked in the arm by a needle.

When the university psychologist examined him further, David recalled a childhood appendix operation, even recalling the incident under general anesthetic, and remembering that one of the orderlies who wheeled him into the operating theatre was old, with wrinkled skin, leading the psychologist to suspect that the incident was a traumatic re-enactment of the operation. [28]

These early North American cases show how a stereotype is developing. Some features, such as the wraparound eyes and slip mouth becoming fixed, while the nose still varies between Barney Hill’s description of two holes in the skull, and Betty’s description of a Jimmy Durante job. The occupants’ variations on a theme depending, dare one suggest, on which version of the Hill story the percipients encountered, and what details struck them at the time.


CONTINUE TO PART FOUR

References:
  1. Quoted in Frank Edwards: Flying Saucers Here and Now, Bantam, 1969, p.86.
  2. Quoted in Otto Binder’s Flying Saucers are Watching Us, Belmont, 1968, p.32
  3. Jay Hudson, Those Sexy Flying Saucer People, Greenleaf, 1967, quoted in John Keel’s Our Haunted Planet, Fawcett, 1971.
  4. Brad Steiger and Joan Writenour, Flying Saucers are Hostile, Tandem, 1967; and Paris Flammonde, Age of Flying Saucers, Hawthorne, 1971
  5. Letter from Eugene Brown, quoted in ‘World Round-up’ section of FSR, 13,6, November 1967.
  6. Letter from Eugene Browne in Awareness Summer 1968, quoted in Brinsley le Poer Trench’s Operation Earth, Spearman, 1969.
  7. George Wouk (writing as Malcolm Kent) The Terror Above Us, Tower, 1967.
  8. Otto Binder, op. cit.
  9. See UFO Investigator, May-June 1967; FSR, 17,2, p.26; Raymond Fowler, Casebook of a UFO Investigator, Prentice-Hall, 1981.
  10. Gabriel Green, Let’s Face the Facts About Flying Saucers, Popular Library, 1967, p.96.
  11. John Keel, ‘More from My Ohio Valley Notebook’, FSR, 13,4, pp 20-21. See also his Mothman Prophecies, Dutton, 1975.
  12. First published in Saucers, Space and Science, 52, p.6; see also Chris Rutkowski, Unnatural History, Chameleon, 1993, PP 26-28.
  13. UFO Investigator, 5,1, September – October 1969, pp. 5-8. Quoted in Gordon Creighton, ‘A New FSR Catalogue’, FSR, 17,3, p.29. See also Donald Keyhoe, UFOs; a New Look, NICAP, 1969, p.31
  14. Lloyd Mallan, ‘Ithica’s Terrifying UFO Epidemic’ in Official Guide to UFOs (compiled by the Editors of Science and Mechanics) Ace Books, 1968. First hand investigations by William Donovan, Richard Orr and Lloyd Mallan. Another version of this article appeared in Fate (UK), June 1969
  15. C and J Lorenzen, New UFO Breakthrough, Award, 1968, p.49.
  16. John Keel, ‘Induced Amnesia’, letter to the editor in FSR 13,6, p.28.
  17. Canada Guardian, 28 August 1967, quoted in FSR, 14, 1, January 1968.
  18. Chris Rutkowski, op. cit., p.17-19
  19. Pieced together from accounts in: Gray Barker, MIB; the secret terror among us, New Age Press, 1983, ch.11, ‘What happened to Caroll Wayne Watts?’; Joan Writenour, ‘ 1967, a busy year for UFOs’, in Allende Letters, by Steiger and Writenour, Tandem Special, 1968, pp. 32 – 35; Steiger and Writenour, New UFO Breakthrough, pp. 43 – 45
  20. Barker, op. cit.
  21. Warren Smith, ‘I visited a flying saucer’, in Allende Letters, pp. 65 – 68
  22. Leo Sprinkle, ‘Hypnotic and psychic implications of UFO reports’ in Coral and Jim Lorenzen, Encounters With UFO Occupants, Berkeley, 1976, pp.256 – 329, especially pp.268 – 287. Also: Daniel Gilmour (ed.) Scientific Study of unidentified Flying Objects. Bantam 1969, pp.389 – 391.
  23. Warren Smith (writing as Eric Norman) Gods, Demons and UFOs, Lancer, 1970, pp.169 – 193
  24. Coral Lorenzen, Flying Saucers, the startling evidence for invasion from outer space. New American Library, 1966.
  25. John Fuller, Incident at Exeter, Putnam, 1966.
  26. George Adamski, Inside the Spaceships, Arco, 1956.
  27. Coral and Jim Lorenzen, Flying Saucer Occupants. New American Library, 1967. Chapter one contains a number of these cases now known to be hoaxes.
  28. W.K. Allan ‘Crocodile skinned entities at Calgary’, FSR, 20, 6, pp.25-26. John Magor, Our UFO Visitors, Hancock, 1977, pp.165-169. John Hererra, Etherian Invasion, Hwong, 1978, pp.26-29. As this story was not published until the modern abduction era had begun, it is possible that some alteration in emphasis may have taken place.